Plant growth and development

Plant growth and development : Photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration are the three major functions that drive plant growth and development (Figure 24). All three are essential to a plant’s survival. How well a plant is able to regulate these functions greatly affects its ability to compete and reproduce.

Also :

The process of photosynthesis

  • Plants are able to produce their own food, which is one of their main advantages over animals. The term “photosynthesis” literally translates as “to put together with light.” A plant needs water from the soil, carbon dioxide from the air, and energy from the sun to make food. It converts carbon dioxide into carbon and oxygen, adds water, and creates carbohydrates (starches and sugars) during photosynthesis. One byproduct is oxygen.

The following is a possible formulation for the photosynthesis formula:

  • Sugar and Oxygen are produced by Carbon Dioxide + Water + Sunlight, or 6 CO2 + 6 H20 + Energy = C6H1206 + 6 02
  • A plant that has produced carbohydrates either stores them for later use or transforms them into more complex energy molecules like proteins and oils. These dietary items are collectively referred to as photosynthesis. When there is little light, the plant uses them or transfers them to its roots or growing fruits.
  • The pigment chlorophyll : which gives leaves their green color, is located in the chloroplasts. It is in charge of retaining solar light energy. To maximize their ability to absorb sunlight, chloroplasts are frequently positioned perpendicular to incoming solar rays. Photosynthesis comes to an end if any of the three components—light, water, and carbon dioxide—are absent. A plant will perish if any of the factors are missing for an extended length of time. These elements are explained one by one below.
  • Light : In order for photosynthesis to occur, light must be present. In general, photosynthesis rises with increasing sunshine intensity. Every plant species does, however, have a maximum light intensity level over which photosynthesis ceases to occur. Tomatoes, like other garden crops, react well to full sun. The production of tomatoes reduces sharply with decreasing light intensity. There are very few tomato types that bear fruit in low light.

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  • Water: One of the essential components of photosynthesis is water. It is absorbed by the roots of the plant and ascends through the xylem.

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  • Carbon dioxide (CO2),: which enters a plant through its stomata, is another necessary element for photosynthesis (Figure 25). Because stomata open and close throughout the day, photosynthesis varies in most plants. They usually open in the morning, close at lunchtime, reopen in the late afternoon, then close permanently in the evening.

  • Temperature:  Temperature has an impact on photosynthesis even if it is not a direct component. At 65° to 85°F, photosynthesis reaches its peak rate and diminishes at lower or higher temperatures.

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  • Respiration: When a plant converts its stored carbohydrates into energy, it benefits from them. Building new tissues and promoting cell proliferation are two uses for this energy. Oxidation is the chemical process that turns sugars and starches into energy. It is comparable to burning coal or wood to create heat. Respiration is the controlled oxidation that occurs in a live cell. As demonstrated by this equation.
  • C6H12O6 + 6 O2 => 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy
  • In essence, this equation is photosynthesis’ opposite. Whereas respiration is a breakdown process, photosynthesis is a building process.


  • A leaf loses water when its stomata open due to shrinking guard cells. We refer to this process as transpiration. As a result, the roots of the plant draw in more water. The presence or absence of closed or open stomata directly affects the rate of transpiration. Ninety percent of the water transpired by a leaf is accounted for by its 1% stomata surface area.
  • Roughly 90% of the water that reaches a plant’s roots is used in the essential function of transpiration. The remaining 10% finds application in plant tissues and chemical processes. Transpiration is accountable for multiple factors:
  • moving minerals inside the plant from the earth.
  • Vaporizing the plant to cool it down.
  • Transporting plant compounds and sugars.
  • preserving the turgor pressure.
  • A number of variables, including temperature, humidity, and wind or air movement, affect how much and how quickly water evaporates. In hot, dry, windy weather with low relative humidity, transpiration is often at its highest.

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A delicate balancing act: A plant needs to balance transpiration, respiration, and photosynthesis in order to grow and develop healthily. When left to their own devices, plants are quite adept at maintaining this delicate equilibrium. Photosynthesis will either slow down or halt in a plant that photosynthesizes quickly, if its respiration rate is insufficient to break down the photo synthases it produces.

  • However, if respiration happens far faster than photosynthesis, the plant won’t have enough photo synthases to generate the energy it needs to grow. Growth will therefore either cease completely or slow down.
  • Transpiration happens when stomata are open, sometimes quite quickly. A huge tree may absorb 100 gallons of water per day, compared to a maize plant’s 50 gallons each season!
  • Rich in high-energy oils, many herb plants enable them to thrive in the arid environments in which they originated. They are able to withstand prolonged stomata closure because to these oils.

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